As you could have guessed Ilum is the best place to farm Archaeology materials at max. The sheer amount of materials around this planet is amazing even with other people farming here with you. It takes roughly 15minutes a cycle and is very profitable, especially if you have Scavenging, Bioanalysis or Slicing too. I make roughly 10 to 15k a cycle from running around Ilum and that doesn't even include the profit I was making from missions at the same time.
The path is fairly simple and is followed almost exactly in my Ilum Archaeology Farming Video. Few alterations are made in the video depending on if I see a node way off the path (then usually see another, it's like a line of candy...) But the idea is to follow the path a wee bit south, wrap around and follow it way up north into Imperial territory. Everything is friendly to you up here... Aside from the Imperials... Wrap around the western side first then come back down the east.
Once you mesh back down into the first line cut over west and up and go around the circular area far northwest. This is a friendly zone with tons of nodes around it and also a chest you can farm. To read more about this chest and how positively awesome it is click here. Below is a list of all the materials you will be gathering on Ilum with Archaeology. Next to each item is the amount I recieve normally with each farming pass and how much I can sell them for.
Damind Crystal - (10 a run, 1750 Credits)
Hypertech Artifact Fragment - (10 a run, 1100 Credits)
Alien Artifact Fragment - (7 a run, 900 Credits)
Upari Crystal - (10-20 a run, 2000 - 4000 Credits)
Blue Polychromic Crystal - (25 a run in total of color crystals, 4500 Credits)
Red Polychromic Crystal - (25 a run in total of color crystals, 4500 Credits)
Green Polychromic Crystal - (25 a run in total of color crystals, 4500 Credits)
Primeval Artifact Fragment - (25 a run in total of color crystals, 4500 Credits)